리눅스 / 명령어 / ls – 디렉토리와 파일 목록 출력하는 명령어

ls

ls는 list의 약어로, 디렉토리와 파일 목록 출력하는 명령어입니다.

ls 디렉토리명

  • 디렉토리에 속한 디렉토리와 파일 목록을 출력합니다.
  • 숨김 파일은 나오지 않습니다.
  • 디렉토리명을 생략하면 현재 디렉토리에 속한 디렉토리와 파일 목록을 출력합니다.
ls /var

/var 디렉토리에 속한 디렉토리와 파일 목록을 출력합니다.

ls -a, ls -l

  • -a 옵션을 붙이면 숨김 파일도 출력합니다.
  • -l 옵션을 붙이면 소유자, 파일 크기 등 자세한 정보도 같이 출력합니다.
  • -al 옵션을 붙이면 숨김 파일을 포함하여 자세한 정보를 출력합니다.

  • h 옵션을 붙이면 파일 크기를 해석하기 편하게 출력합니다.

ls *

  • *를 사용하여 특정 조건에 맞는 디렉토리와 파일만 출력할 수 있습니다.
ls /etc/*.conf

/etc 디렉토리에서 확장자가 conf인 파일을 출력합니다.

ls /etc/m*.conf

/etc 디렉토리에서 m으로 시작하고 확장자가 conf인 파일을 출력합니다.

ls –help

ls 명령어의 옵션을 볼 수 있습니다. 아래는 CentOS 7에서의 명령 결과입니다.

Usage: ls [OPTION]... [FILE]...
List information about the FILEs (the current directory by default).
Sort entries alphabetically if none of -cftuvSUX nor --sort is specified.

Mandatory arguments to long options are mandatory for short options too.
  -a, --all                  do not ignore entries starting with .
  -A, --almost-all           do not list implied . and ..
      --author               with -l, print the author of each file
  -b, --escape               print C-style escapes for nongraphic characters
      --block-size=SIZE      scale sizes by SIZE before printing them; e.g.,
                               '--block-size=M' prints sizes in units of
                               1,048,576 bytes; see SIZE format below
  -B, --ignore-backups       do not list implied entries ending with ~
  -c                         with -lt: sort by, and show, ctime (time of last
                               modification of file status information);
                               with -l: show ctime and sort by name;
                               otherwise: sort by ctime, newest first
  -C                         list entries by columns
      --color[=WHEN]         colorize the output; WHEN can be 'never', 'auto',
                               or 'always' (the default); more info below
  -d, --directory            list directories themselves, not their contents
  -D, --dired                generate output designed for Emacs' dired mode
  -f                         do not sort, enable -aU, disable -ls --color
  -F, --classify             append indicator (one of */=>@|) to entries
      --file-type            likewise, except do not append '*'
      --format=WORD          across -x, commas -m, horizontal -x, long -l,
                               single-column -1, verbose -l, vertical -C
      --full-time            like -l --time-style=full-iso
  -g                         like -l, but do not list owner
      --group-directories-first
                             group directories before files;
                               can be augmented with a --sort option, but any
                               use of --sort=none (-U) disables grouping
  -G, --no-group             in a long listing, don't print group names
  -h, --human-readable       with -l, print sizes in human readable format
                               (e.g., 1K 234M 2G)
      --si                   likewise, but use powers of 1000 not 1024
  -H, --dereference-command-line
                             follow symbolic links listed on the command line
      --dereference-command-line-symlink-to-dir
                             follow each command line symbolic link
                               that points to a directory
      --hide=PATTERN         do not list implied entries matching shell PATTERN
                               (overridden by -a or -A)
      --indicator-style=WORD  append indicator with style WORD to entry names:
                               none (default), slash (-p),
                               file-type (--file-type), classify (-F)
  -i, --inode                print the index number of each file
  -I, --ignore=PATTERN       do not list implied entries matching shell PATTERN
  -k, --kibibytes            default to 1024-byte blocks for disk usage
  -l                         use a long listing format
  -L, --dereference          when showing file information for a symbolic
                               link, show information for the file the link
                               references rather than for the link itself
  -m                         fill width with a comma separated list of entries
  -n, --numeric-uid-gid      like -l, but list numeric user and group IDs
  -N, --literal              print raw entry names (don't treat e.g. control
                               characters specially)
  -o                         like -l, but do not list group information
  -p, --indicator-style=slash
                             append / indicator to directories
  -q, --hide-control-chars   print ? instead of nongraphic characters
      --show-control-chars   show nongraphic characters as-is (the default,
                               unless program is 'ls' and output is a terminal)
  -Q, --quote-name           enclose entry names in double quotes
      --quoting-style=WORD   use quoting style WORD for entry names:
                               literal, locale, shell, shell-always, c, escape
  -r, --reverse              reverse order while sorting
  -R, --recursive            list subdirectories recursively
  -s, --size                 print the allocated size of each file, in blocks
  -S                         sort by file size
      --sort=WORD            sort by WORD instead of name: none (-U), size (-S),
                               time (-t), version (-v), extension (-X)
      --time=WORD            with -l, show time as WORD instead of default
                               modification time: atime or access or use (-u)
                               ctime or status (-c); also use specified time
                               as sort key if --sort=time
      --time-style=STYLE     with -l, show times using style STYLE:
                               full-iso, long-iso, iso, locale, or +FORMAT;
                               FORMAT is interpreted like in 'date'; if FORMAT
                               is FORMAT1FORMAT2, then FORMAT1 applies
                               to non-recent files and FORMAT2 to recent files;
                               if STYLE is prefixed with 'posix-', STYLE
                               takes effect only outside the POSIX locale
  -t                         sort by modification time, newest first
  -T, --tabsize=COLS         assume tab stops at each COLS instead of 8
  -u                         with -lt: sort by, and show, access time;
                               with -l: show access time and sort by name;
                               otherwise: sort by access time
  -U                         do not sort; list entries in directory order
  -v                         natural sort of (version) numbers within text
  -w, --width=COLS           assume screen width instead of current value
  -x                         list entries by lines instead of by columns
  -X                         sort alphabetically by entry extension
  -1                         list one file per line

SELinux options:

  --lcontext                 Display security context.   Enable -l. Lines
                             will probably be too wide for most displays.
  -Z, --context              Display security context so it fits on most
                             displays.  Displays only mode, user, group,
                             security context and file name.
  --scontext                 Display only security context and file name.
      --help     display this help and exit
      --version  output version information and exit

SIZE is an integer and optional unit (example: 10M is 10*1024*1024).  Units
are K, M, G, T, P, E, Z, Y (powers of 1024) or KB, MB, ... (powers of 1000).

Using color to distinguish file types is disabled both by default and
with --color=never.  With --color=auto, ls emits color codes only when
standard output is connected to a terminal.  The LS_COLORS environment
variable can change the settings.  Use the dircolors command to set it.

Exit status:
 0  if OK,
 1  if minor problems (e.g., cannot access subdirectory),
 2  if serious trouble (e.g., cannot access command-line argument).

GNU coreutils online help: <http://www.gnu.org/software/coreutils/>
For complete documentation, run: info coreutils 'ls invocation'